Black Resistance from the beginning

And the People Rise Up!!!

Screen Shot 2017-01-27 at 1.55.52 AMMy final source evaluation was on a book called Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney by Horace Campbell. Marcus Garvey was the undisputed champion of the black race, of the poor, of the working class and the downpressed. He was the father of Garveyism, a brand of militant nationalism which gave the black person a sense of identification with the whole Africa while stressing self-reliance. Campbell strayed from the bigger picture of Garvey’s influence but instead narrowed it down to key links of his entire operation from the beginning. Campbell gives a concise view on Garvey’s early life as a youngster who, through travelling, tries to understand the limited scope for self-expression offered to black people and that it was not so different to what he was used to. The author also sets out to describe how Garvey came to establish the UNIA on the mission basis to embrace the purpose of black humanity and distinguish it from local reformist pressure groups. Details of Garvey’s and UNIA’s move from Jamaica, where it would not flourish, to the states to raise funds are explored. Campbell discusses important information regarding the battle for black dignity and African freedom which came to surface during and after the war. Battles against discriminatory groups and leaders such as the Klu Klux Klan and Senator Theodore Bilbo, who tried to extinguish the black population in the states, during the Harlem Renaissance are vastly explored. It can be seen that Campbell wrote this book mildly from a Jamaican perspective through his remarks to Jamaican politics, other revolutionist and numerous cultural effects.

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This books is an extremely valuable secondary source that navigates the exceedingly important connection between Garveyism, the UNIA and Marcus Garvey in the very beginning. The book also accounted for important details that transpired in Jamaica that had direct impacts on his operation in the States. The book had many pros and cons such as the fact that it connects events to other important activist such as Paul Bogle and Walter Rodney and their effects/movements outside the states which are not the aim of my paper. Also the book vaguely loses focus of Garvey in America after it mentions when he deported back the island. However, I value this source and will continue to use it for its strengths.

Campbell, Horace. Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 1987. Print.


Black Moses

A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots

Conventionally known as ‘Black Moses’, Marcus Garvey led the largest all- black movement of the nation in the early 20th century. The second source I decided to examine was Black Moses by Edmund David Cronon. I have specifically chosen to use chapter 1 and chapter 4 to draw on for information on the introduction and initial growth of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. The book explores Marcus Garvey and the seeds he has sewn for a new black pride and determination on a broad scheme. However, the book hones in on the four year it took the build the Universal Negro Improvement Association, ‘the largest and most powerful all-black organization the nation has ever seen.’ Black Moses brings Garvey’s controversial figure to life and recovers the significance of his life and work. Cronon discusses the people who helped Garvey introduce himself to Harlem in 1920 when he arrived. People like W.E. DuBois and Amy Ashwood and the influence and support they provided are examined in contrast the inhibitors like Secretary Charles Evan Hughes and J.Edgar Hoover who were against Garvey movements and so tried to put a stop to him.

garveyvduboisBlack Moses is very valuable secondary source that more than recognizes Garvey’s achievements but especially focuses on the development of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the people who helped Garvey during his introduction phase in Harlem, New York 1920 and in its later stages of growth. The author also speaks about the key characters who tried to degrade his influence and stop his movement. The book does not have many weaknesses because it focuses on all aspects of my topics. I look forward to using this book as a leading source to develop on the UNIA and Garveyism in the Harlem, New York during the early 20th century.

Cronon, Edmund David. Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Madison: U of Wisconsin, 1969. Print.


Marcus Garvey All Over

“Our Greatest Black Leader

circa 1925: Full-length image of Jamaican activist Marcus Garvey (1887 - 1940), a leader of Harlem's Black Nationalism movement, wearing a military uniform and carrying a sword, New York City. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)Jamaican born national hero Marcus Mosiah Garvey was a black activist who created mass movements and changed global black politics forever, especially in the United States of America. His expansive liberations and racial uplifts came to be known as Garveyism, a new groundbreaking interpretation of black politics during the periods of the First and Second World Wars. He created the foundation for his movements in the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Harlem, New York and the millions of supporters he attracted. The Age of Garvey, demonstrates the consequences of Garveyism due to its international presence during the interwar years and beyond. Adam Ewing demonstrates Garvey’s ideologies and theories as globally influential opposed to a “view from the prism of american politics”. The Age of Garvey explores the rise and fall of Marcus Garvey around the UNIA’s development and its help in Garveyism’s growth and evolution. In the United States, radicalized Garveyites in UNIA were able to find a stance in which they were shielded from white supremacy and thus allowed to thrive in battles of politics, hierarchical challenges and racial, religious, class and gender identity negotiations. The author seeks to tell the story of the revival of millions of African-American men and women through the inspirational words of Marcus Garvey to fight back against the humiliation and disempowerment in their lives.

This is a valuable secondary source that congratulates his activism and it provides an deep analysis of the events that transpired around Garveyism’s introduction to world by esteemed historians. The book accounts for his mass movements all over the world but I will be concentrating on the specific ones in the United States.  The book explores not only accounts of his triumphant or failing moments, but also the theory and mindset of Marcus Garvey while he did his work and it is this that will compliment my paper.

Ewing, Adam. The Age of Garvey: How a Jamaican Activist Created a Mass Movement and Changed Global Black Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2014. Print.