American Studies WPA Poster PictureThis poster considers the Second New Deal, and the point of the Working Progressive Administration (WPA), and the construction of public buildings ,such as airports, that allowed the idea of economic security to become a reality. Establishment of the WPA was not until 1934 when New Dealers, such as President Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins, realized that there was a ‘growing popular glamour’ for greater economic equality, specifically in the economic security sector, unlike the era of the First New Deal that focused on economic recovery. The idea of the Second New Deal would now guarantee Americans the protection against unemployment and poverty. The WPA would call for out-of-work white collar workers and professionals, such as airplane pilots. Involved New Dealers pitched that the government should redistribute the national income so as to sustain mass purchasing power in the consumer economy, so as to prevent another Depression the first was thought to have been caused by the imbalance of wealth and income. The posters is manifested with mid-20th century planes and calligraphy that advertises something new and innovative, Municipal Airports in New York City. The arrangements of the words and images are worth taking note of; the arrangement is in a grandiose fashion with the moderately colored image taking up most of the poster and information about ‘first two airports’ in smaller but large enough print. This is an effective way of getting as much information as possible to the target market for the most part probably will not stop to look at the poster in detail but is still provided enough information either way. This poster embodies some traditional and some unique styles that would be in post poster today and in the 1930’s.



Jacob Riis Photograph

In Sleeping Quarters, Rivington Street Dump, Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis, immigrated to the United States in 1870 and was a pioneer in the use of photography as an agent of social reform. This photo depicts the deplorable conditions of the slum in New York during the 19th century. What you are looking at is sleeping quarters by the Rivington Street dump. The tattered beds in the background look like they are made for small children, which would mean that the grown men that sleep on them would be cramped.  The tiny living quarter is obviously shared between more than one person and so the space would be cramped as it is but to make it worse the roof is feet away from  the ground. The men would be cluttered. The men do not have many ways to entertain themselves in the small quarters, so they resort to smoking and sitting on the roof. The man’s clothes are filthy. He probably has no other alternative suites of clothes. The facial expression shows that the man is obviously not happy; he looks like the only happiness he has in the pipe he has in his mouth. Also, it seems to be that there are no light structures in the space, so the light went out when the sun went down which adds to the already depressive atmosphere. The drum in the centre of the room is the only table structure they have so they seem to conserve space by trying to hang things like the kettle from the roof and some other things in the background in the peak of the roof. I have no doubt the walls are not made of a heat sustainable material, so in the winter it would be terribly cold. The presence of rodents and insects are inevitable, which adds to what I assume is already a terrible smell and immense amounts of filth.  This picture is a true representation of the conditions that lower class people had to deal with in 19th century New York.

@Mrs. G (Credit)


Black Resistance from the beginning

And the People Rise Up!!!

Screen Shot 2017-01-27 at 1.55.52 AMMy final source evaluation was on a book called Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney by Horace Campbell. Marcus Garvey was the undisputed champion of the black race, of the poor, of the working class and the downpressed. He was the father of Garveyism, a brand of militant nationalism which gave the black person a sense of identification with the whole Africa while stressing self-reliance. Campbell strayed from the bigger picture of Garvey’s influence but instead narrowed it down to key links of his entire operation from the beginning. Campbell gives a concise view on Garvey’s early life as a youngster who, through travelling, tries to understand the limited scope for self-expression offered to black people and that it was not so different to what he was used to. The author also sets out to describe how Garvey came to establish the UNIA on the mission basis to embrace the purpose of black humanity and distinguish it from local reformist pressure groups. Details of Garvey’s and UNIA’s move from Jamaica, where it would not flourish, to the states to raise funds are explored. Campbell discusses important information regarding the battle for black dignity and African freedom which came to surface during and after the war. Battles against discriminatory groups and leaders such as the Klu Klux Klan and Senator Theodore Bilbo, who tried to extinguish the black population in the states, during the Harlem Renaissance are vastly explored. It can be seen that Campbell wrote this book mildly from a Jamaican perspective through his remarks to Jamaican politics, other revolutionist and numerous cultural effects.

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This books is an extremely valuable secondary source that navigates the exceedingly important connection between Garveyism, the UNIA and Marcus Garvey in the very beginning. The book also accounted for important details that transpired in Jamaica that had direct impacts on his operation in the States. The book had many pros and cons such as the fact that it connects events to other important activist such as Paul Bogle and Walter Rodney and their effects/movements outside the states which are not the aim of my paper. Also the book vaguely loses focus of Garvey in America after it mentions when he deported back the island. However, I value this source and will continue to use it for its strengths.

Campbell, Horace. Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 1987. Print.



Marcus Garvey All Over

“Our Greatest Black Leader

circa 1925: Full-length image of Jamaican activist Marcus Garvey (1887 - 1940), a leader of Harlem's Black Nationalism movement, wearing a military uniform and carrying a sword, New York City. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)Jamaican born national hero Marcus Mosiah Garvey was a black activist who created mass movements and changed global black politics forever, especially in the United States of America. His expansive liberations and racial uplifts came to be known as Garveyism, a new groundbreaking interpretation of black politics during the periods of the First and Second World Wars. He created the foundation for his movements in the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Harlem, New York and the millions of supporters he attracted. The Age of Garvey, demonstrates the consequences of Garveyism due to its international presence during the interwar years and beyond. Adam Ewing demonstrates Garvey’s ideologies and theories as globally influential opposed to a “view from the prism of american politics”. The Age of Garvey explores the rise and fall of Marcus Garvey around the UNIA’s development and its help in Garveyism’s growth and evolution. In the United States, radicalized Garveyites in UNIA were able to find a stance in which they were shielded from white supremacy and thus allowed to thrive in battles of politics, hierarchical challenges and racial, religious, class and gender identity negotiations. The author seeks to tell the story of the revival of millions of African-American men and women through the inspirational words of Marcus Garvey to fight back against the humiliation and disempowerment in their lives.

This is a valuable secondary source that congratulates his activism and it provides an deep analysis of the events that transpired around Garveyism’s introduction to world by esteemed historians. The book accounts for his mass movements all over the world but I will be concentrating on the specific ones in the United States.  The book explores not only accounts of his triumphant or failing moments, but also the theory and mindset of Marcus Garvey while he did his work and it is this that will compliment my paper.

Ewing, Adam. The Age of Garvey: How a Jamaican Activist Created a Mass Movement and Changed Global Black Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2014. Print.



Just Keep “Progressing”


The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is considered one of the oldest Railroads in North America. This railroad, was pioneered by Philip E. Thomas and George Brown. The understanding of the railroad is that it is marked as a major break in American industrialization. The Railroad that would run from the port of Baltimore West to Ohio River was chartered by the Commonwealth of Virginia, Chapter 123 of the 1826 Session Laws of Maryland on March 8, 1827.

Construction began in 1828, with the the first division opening, between Baltimore and Ellicotts Mills, Md, in May of 1830. By 1857, the B & O Railroad was steadily developed with it next division in St Louis. The Railroad played many major roles. One of these major roles being transporting Union Troops and Supplies during the Civil War. By the late 19th century the B & O railroad developers had made a breakthrough by connected the railroad with Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York.

As the B & O Railroad got along, in the mid 20th century, it became a freight carrier. As it began to face financial difficulties it was procured by the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company in 1963 and they became one in 1965 covering 11,000 miles of track. In the 1970’s, the B & O railroad and CSX Corporation, under the control of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company combined resulting in 27,000 miles of track. This merged ended the history of the B & O track.

“The name may be gone, but the road will always be remembered.”


This artifact represents many of the themes if the prolegomenon. These would include the result of the industrial age, the constant and rapid progression americans are known for and the unfortunate wrecking brought to nature during its construction. The railroad shows an obvious meaning and role in industrialization, however, apart from this the railroad’s development journeys through the moving frontier right up until the Frontier “close” in 1809.

Work Cited:\…/us…/the-closing-of-the-frontier

For more information:


American Boy!!!

“The greatest gift of life is friendship and I have received it

Huber H. Humphrey

Fashion Square Mall, Charlottesville, VA

This weekend my friends and I had a first-hand experience of the american lifestyle. Americans enjoy the weekend. Typical Americans work or go to school five days a week, typically Monday through Friday. Saturdays and Sundays are generally called the weekends. On weekends, many teens use it for leisure activities and other social opportunities. This weekend my friends and I went shopping in Fashion Square Mall in Charlottesville, Va, a common american thing to do for teens on the weekend. We bought clothes, ate and talked about the upcoming week and plans for the rest of the day.

Personally, I visited a couple of my favorite stores like ‘Foot Locker’, ‘Finish Line’, ‘Lids’ and a couple department stores like ‘JC Penny’ and ‘Belks and was graced by the never ending sales and discounts they are  known for. While I was in foot locker I saw the most beautiful sneakers and could not resist the urge to buy them.


It’s simply GORGEOUS!!!

Apart from having a fit over shoes and I started picking out items for my first chapel day at STAB coming up this Wednesday, and I am quite excited for it. Mostly excited because I enjoy dressing up in formal attire and I have a really cool tie color I want to show off.

So my first weekend with STAB was pretty great. I got to spend it with great friends and got to experience a real American teenager experience.

The Great Scott